Veteran hedge-fund manager says capitalists don’t divide the economic pie well, so the system isn’t working effectively for all

Ray Dalio, founder of Bridgewater Associates LP, the world’s largest hedge-fund firm. Ray Dalio certainly is no radical idealist, but in his frequent writings and media appearances the veteran investor consistently calls for Americans to rewrite their longstanding contract with capitalism so that it is fairer and more generous to more people.

Otherwise, he predicts, life in the U.S. could become more difficult: mountainous debt that stunts economic growth; fewer opportunities for ordinary citizens to get ahead financially; and a worldwide lack of trust in the U.S. dollar that diminishes Americans’ purchasing power and could lower their standard of living.

Dalio is the founder of Bridgewater Associates, the world’s largest hedge-fund firm, which has made him a billionaire. So it’s not surprising that he champions capitalism as a proven way to expand economic growth and living standards.

Advertisement “Capitalism and capitalists are good at increasing and producing productivity to increase the size of the economic pie,” he says.

Then Dalio stands this tenet on its head. Capitalists don’t divide the economic pie very well, he says, and so today the capitalist system, the foundation of the U.S. economy, is not working efficiently and effectively enough for all.

“Capitalism also produces large wealth gaps that produce opportunity gaps, which threaten the system,” Dalio says — a system that has been and still is key to the health and success of U.S. business, workers, government and investors alike.

Unless the U.S. takes steps to make systemic repairs designed to provide greater opportunity for more Americans to achieve personal growth and financial security, the consequences likely will be painful for the country, as Dalio explains in this recent telephone interview, which has been edited for length and clarity:

MarketWatch: You have written and spoken about three big domestic and international problems facing the U.S. over the next five to 10 years and how a failure to address these challenges could threaten America’s standing in the world. What are these three pressing problems?

Ray Dalio: I look at it mechanically, like a doctor looking at a disease. If asked what is the issue here, I would say that it is a certain type of disease that has certain patterns which are timeless and universal, and the United States is broadly following that progression.

There are three problems that are coming together, so it’s important to understand them individually and how they collectively make a bigger problem.

Fuel for Investing Smarter Make the smartest investment decisions with access to Barron’s in-depth analysis and unrivaled market predictions — all conveniently accessed on MarketWatch.com. Limited-Time Offer: $12 for 12 Weeks. LEARN MORE There is a money and credit cycle problem, a wealth and values gap problem, and an emerging great power challenging the existing dominant power problem. What’s going on is an economic downturn together with a large wealth gap and the rising power of China challenging the existing power of the United States.

Advertisement It’s a fact that there has been a weakening of the competitive advantages of the United States over the last couple of decades. For example, the United States lost a lot of the education advantage relative to other countries, our share of world GDP is reduced, the wealth gap has increased which has contributed to our political and social polarization.

But we haven’t lost all of our competitive advantages. For example in innovation and technology, the United States is still the strongest, but China is coming on very strong and at existing rates will surpass the United States. Militarily, the U.S. is stronger but China also has come on very strong and is probably stronger in the waters close to China that include Taiwan and other disputed areas. Finances for both countries are challenging, but for the U.S. more so. The U.S. is in the late stages of a debt cycle and money cycle in which we’re producing a lot of debt and printing a lot of money. That’s a problem. As a reserve currency status, the U.S. dollar DXY, -0.16% is still dominant though its being threatened by its central bank printing of money and increasing the debt production problem.

‘The United States is a 75-year-old empire and it is exhibiting signs of decline.’ MarketWatch: Focusing on the money and credit problem, excessive debt can be a killer for businesses and families, but most people don’t seem to recognize that debt plays havoc with their country’s finances as well. Government runs the money printing press, which buys time, but eventually something’s got to give.

Advertisement Dalio: If you look at the history — for example, the Dutch Empire, the British Empire — both experienced the creation of debt and the printing of money, less educational advantages, greater internal wealth conflict, greater challenges from rival countries. Every country has stress tests. If you look at British history, the development of rival countries led them to lose their competitive advantages. Their finances were bad because they had accumulated a lot of debt. So, after World War II those trends went against them. Then they had the Suez Canal incident and they were no longer a world power and the British pound is no longer a reserve currency. These diseases almost always play out the same way.

The United States’ relative position in the world, which was dominant in almost all these categories at the beginning of this world order in 1945, has declined and is exhibiting real signs that should raise worries. There’s a lot of baggage. The U.S. has a lot of debt, which is adding to the hurdles that typically drag an economy down, so in order to succeed, you have to do a pretty big debt restructuring. History shows what kind of a challenge that is.

Advertisement I just want to present understanding and facts. There’s a life cycle. You’re born and you die. As you get older you can see certain things that are symptoms of being later on in life. To know the life cycle and to know that these symptoms are emerging is what I’m trying to convey. The United States is a 75-year-old empire and it is exhibiting signs of decline. If you want to extend your life, there are clear things you can do, but it means doing things that you don’t want to do.

‘Wealth cannot be created by creating debt and money.’ MarketWatch: Let’s put it bluntly: Is capitalism broken?

Dalio: I wouldn’t say broken as much as I’d say it has problems that have to be fixed. As I said, I’m not ideological, I’m mechanical. I look at everything operationally like a machine and what has been shown is that capitalism is a fabulous way of creating incentives and innovation and of allocating resources to create productivity. All successful countries have uses for it. For example, communist China has chosen capitalism, which has been essential to its growth.

Advertisement But capitalism also produces large wealth gaps that produce opportunity gaps, which threaten the system in the ways we are seeing now. Wealth gaps give unfair advantages to the children of rich people because they get a better education, which undermines the equal opportunity notion. As the number of people who get equal opportunity diminishes, this reduces the possibility of finding talented people in that population, which isn’t fair and undermines productivity. Then the have-nots want to tear down the capitalist system at a time of bad economic conditions. That dynamic has always existed in history and it’s happening now.

The capitalist system is based on profit-seeking being the resource allocation system, which generally works well but doesn’t always. So, capitalism and capitalists are good at increasing and producing productivity to increase the size of the economic pie, but they’re not good at dividing the economic opportunity pie. Socialists are generally not good at increasing productivity and the size of the economic opportunity pie, but they are better at dividing the pie.

Advertisement We now have too much emphasis on distributing wealth and getting it from producing debt and printing money, and not enough from increasing productivity. Wealth cannot be created by creating debt and money. We have to be productive together, so we have to look at the good investments that we can make together that make total sense, like in education, and create equal opportunity in order to be productive.

We have to be in this together. The system needs to be reengineered to do this. But if we don’t do this engineering well, we’re going to spend in an unlimited way and deal with that by creating debt that won’t ever be paid back, and we will risk losing the reserve currency status of the dollar. If we get into that position — and we’re very close — things will get much worse because we are living on borrowed money that’s financing our consumption.

‘Within the next five years you could see a situation in which foreigners who have been lending money to the United States won’t want to.’ MarketWatch: About the dollar being threatened as the world’s reserve currency — what does “close” mean, and what would the decline of this status mean for Americans?

Advertisement Dalio: Within the next five years you could see a situation in which foreigners who have been lending money to the United States won’t want to, and the dollar would not be as readily accepted for making purchases in the world as it is now.

We have to realize that we’re spending more than we’re earning. Every individual, every company and every country has an income statement and a balance sheet. The income statement is how much is your earnings are relative to your expenses. If your earnings are greater than your expenses, great, you will increase your balance sheet. If your earnings are less than your expenses, then you have to draw on your balance sheet.

The United States doesn’t have a good income statement and balance sheet in dealing with the rest of the world. It is running a deficit to the rest of the world that is financed by borrowing money so that we are producing liabilities. Our living standards are based on our spending, not on our income statement or balance sheet. If the U.S. loses that ability and it doesn’t force itself to be more productive, one day it will lose that ability to borrow and then will have to cut spending, which is painful.

Advertisement When that pain happens at a time when you have the population at each other’s throats over money, that’s a toxic combination. People can’t take a downturn and have less buying power. So, necessarily the poor will have to be getting money from the rich and the rich are going to want to prevent that, and then if it gets bad enough, that it messes up productivity.

Read: The Fed is ‘fighting the last battle,’ and here are the risks to its new strategy

Also read: This new ETF is made for “black-swan” moments like now

‘When the causes people are fighting for are more important to them than the system that binds them together, the system is in jeopardy.’ MarketWatch: What steps do politicians and business leaders need to take now to create and implement reforms that will fortify the U.S. balance sheet and the dollar’s status?

Advertisement Dalio: In brief, productivity and equal opportunity are most needed. If we could at least agree that we must have these things, that would be great. What we have now is a situation in which we’re fighting each other, we are not providing equal opportunity, and we are losing our productivity gains.

One of the greatest problems is that everybody’s fighting for their cause. When the causes people are fighting for are more important to them than the system that binds them together, the system is in jeopardy. This seems to now be happening. Everybody has their cause and they’re almost losing sight of the overall picture. Democracy depends on compromise. It’s the notion of compromise and working together and being able to have a negotiation to get what the most people want rather than have one side beat the other.

You really have to take the relative parties and make them agree on what’s going to be best. The group has got to be bipartisan and they have to be knowledgeable. Bring together parties of opposing ideologies who are also knowledgeable, not just smart but who are on the ground, to come up with a plan together that all can support so that we’re productive, increasing the size of the pie and dividing it well. It would be great if whoever the president is could draw upon people from both parties and different perspectives.

Advertisement MarketWatch: As Americans prepare for a presidential election in November, the three major problems you mentioned earlier would seem to be important factors for voters to consider.

Dalio: Yes. The world is going to change in the next five years in shocking ways in relation to the three big issues we have been talking about.

First, there’s a debt-money cycle — what is the value of money? What will happen to the debt? Will the dollar retain its value? The finances of this — who is going to pay for it? How? What will work? That’s number one.

Second, the wealth, opportunity and values gaps will have to be dealt with. Are we going to be at each other’s throats in a way that is harmful or are we going to be working together even if things get worse?

Third is the rising of a great power in China to challenge the existing power of the United States. Will this be well handled?

Advertisement We will be dealing with these issues in the next presidential term, which will have a huge effect on our outcomes. The last time those three things existed as they do now was the 1930 to 1945 period. That’s the last time you had zero interest rates and money printing. That’s the last time you had the wealth and political gaps as large as they are today, and it was the last time you had rising powers challenging the existing world order. This and many analogous times before it help to give us perspective.

‘Worry as much about the value of your money as you worry about the value of your investments.’ MarketWatch: These and other domestic and international challenges will clearly affect Americans financially. What would be a smart, proactive strategy for investors to both protect a portfolio and take advantage of market opportunities?

Advertisement Dalio: First, worry as much about the value of your money as you worry about the value of your investments. The printing of money and the debt should make you aware of that. That’s why financial asset prices have gone up — stocks, gold — because of the debt and money creation. You don’t want to own the thing you think is safest — cash.

Second, know how to diversify well. That includes diversification of countries, currencies and assets, because wealth is not so much destroyed as it shifts. When something goes down, something else is going up so you have to look at all things on a relative basis. Diversify well and worry about the value of cash.

Americans look at the value of everything in U.S. dollars, but they don’t look at the value of the dollar. You’re in an environment where you have to be cautious about that, because the easiest way out for government is to do what the U.S. just did, which is to borrow and print a lot of money. They don’t have to get it from anyone, because when they raise taxes they have to get it from somebody and that somebody squawks. The population doesn’t pay much attention to the debt and the printing of money. They all appreciate the giving of money. So you hear the population say, “I need more money,” and get angry if they don’t get it. So you’ve got to give them more money, and it’s easier not to take it away from someone else.

It’s time for income-seeking investors to take a fresh look at these 28 utility stocks Fidelity’s $230 billion man explains why he dumped Tesla shares but still bets big on Warren Buffett

About the Author

Jonathan Burton Jonathan Burton is the money and investing editor for MarketWatch, overseeing coverage of investment news and strategies. His Life Savings column focuses on money and personal finance matters. Previously he held contributing editor positions at Bloomberg Personal Finance, Mutual Funds and Individual Investor magazines, and was a reporter with the Far Eastern Economic Review and Investor’s Business Daily. He is also the author of two books on investing.

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Replies

Scruff McGruff 18h ago

This might be the best article MW has ever published. My favorite quote:

“One of the greatest problems is that everybody’s fighting for their cause. When the causes people are fighting for are more important to them than the system that binds them together, the system is in jeopardy. This seems to now be happening. Everybody has their cause and they’re almost losing sight of the overall picture. Democracy depends on compromise. It’s the notion of compromise and working together and being able to have a negotiation to get what the most people want rather than have one side beat the other.”

Amen. Reply

Show 3 previous replies Richard Schultz Scruff McGruff 38m ago

Democracy isn’t fundamental. Human rights are. Democracy was supposed to be a tool to help protect human rights for the many, but it has been perverted by capitalism into a tool to protect the property rights of the few. We shouldn’t be so surprised that when democracy is so perverted that people look for other tools. Reply alexander davis Scruff McGruff 2h ago

The utility of “Capitalism” is wearing thin. After its 17th century beginning. It has only produced limited “Wealth”. It is not, a good system for systemic wealth creation. At some point, it had to become “Impotent”. Socialism is a better system for distribution. Even though it limits the creation of “Wealth”. American “Hegemony” is tied to its economic system. And, trying to use it, to rule the world. Maybe putting a strain on “Capitalism” it cannot bare? Reply

Show 1 more replies Trevor Sutherland 22h ago

I think he is right. A lot of our social problems come from this “top heavy” concentration of wealth. I think companies should divert significantly more of their ownership stake to their workers. That is the best way to close the “wealth gap” that is straining our social fabric. All those people at the very bottom are not “lazy”; they work harder than pretty much everyone else above them. The difference is the educated are compensated for what they KNOW, not what they DO. I recently met an Uber/Lyft driver that works 15 hour days to bring home about $90K a year. That’s EVERY day. I have two degrees and made that in 2002….. Let that sink in. I work 40-50 hours a week mostly from home or a comfy office. That driver works 80 hours a week and is only home to sleep. The poor are hard workers, they just don’t get much of the wealth. I think even the french fry guy or barrista should get a MASSIVE increase in employer match or profit-sharing or warrants. 6% is not enough when you make $10/hr. Maybe a sliding scale tied to national wages or something. Taxes aren’t the answer. The corps benefit from massively favorable tax policy—-sweetening the pot for their workers gets them more loyal (and wealthier) workers and doing it with equity doesn’t have the huge negative impact to that annual EBITDA number. Reply

Show 15 previous replies Alex Johns Trevor Sutherland 1h ago

You are either a Socialist or a very naive Liberal.

The Uber driver made the personal CHOICE, directly or indirectly to become an Uber driver. What, are you expecting taxpayers to make everyone “equal” through wealth distribution? That is what you are directly implying. Absurdity. Reply

Show 3 more replies Michael Wood Trevor Sutherland 2h ago

“I think companies should divert significantly more of their ownership stake to their workers.”

Wouldn’t that result in workers being shackled to their employers? Wouldn’t workers…as well as companies…be better served if workers have the ability to move around? Reply

Show 1 more replies Robert Griffin 22h ago

Ray Dalio is spot on. If capitalism is going to survive we need to make it win win for everyone. A living wage, access to good health care, access to affordable educational opportunity, and emphasizing saving the planet with a green new deal. Step one, roll back the tax cut for the ridiculously rich which did not “trickle down”. Campaign finance reform is essential to saving the system. Until then, we have the best government corrupt money can buy. Reply

previous replies Richard Schultz Robert Griffin 29m ago

It can’t be. Capitalism’s very nature is to only consider the transactions of the counterparties, the buyer and the seller, while leaving all other effects on other stakeholders as externalities. If it fully factored in those externalities, it would cease to be capitalism and would enter the realm of socialism. All talk of “sustainable capitalism” or “stakeholder capitalism” is a grift. Capital is by definition money used to make other money– it pre-assumes an infinitely growing economy. This is not possible on our finite planet which is almost completely leveraged already. We will NOT get off the planet in time to become a spacefaring virus growing exponentially into the ether. The only way out is socialism, and many of the rich know this, but would choose to die of natural causes before the transition and leave future generations holding the bag because supposedly “you only live once”. Reply david goff Robert Griffin 3h ago

Okay lets assume that taxation of the top 20% of income earners produces a windfall for the other 80%. And lets use a real life example. My nephew in Chicago has little opportunities for work that is meaningful because the work his parents enjoyed at his age is everywhere else overseas. So, he receives subsidized housing that he pays $30 a month for, he receives $250 for food and has a part time job that he makes $1200 a month, plus whatever I send him. Since the Bernie plan would be to tax the Top 20% and redistribute, we have to assume that is where my nephew will gain the benefit. Since American business is still being clobbered by globalization, as you create the living wage there will be just less workers and more automation. You have not solved the issue that American businesses are losing all their business to overseas suppliers. But lets assume that you can DOUBLE the benefits to my nephew by taxing the top 20% earners that have something left to tax. Is increasing his benefit from $250 a month to $500 a month really going to improve the quality of his life ? Not at all. And we are really not sure that we can even garner the tax revenue left from the Top 20% to increase his benefits 10%. Instead, Make it possible for a small business to succeed in this country instead of taxing even more away from them, and they will help my nephew.

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Wuhan-Coronavirus.jpg?strip=all&lossy=1&fit=900%2C506&ssl=1

On January 23, 2020. Wuhan, central Chinese city, and their surrounding cities like Ezhou, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Huanggang, and Jingmen announced the suspension of almost all their transportation systems. Bus, subway, ferry, train stations, highways were all affected. Airport was temporarily closed, and other exit corridors were done the same.

Well, the cause of this action is not far fetched.  Almost everyone must have heard of the reason by now. Corona Virus! This new Coronavirus, which was first identified in Wuhan, has put all other countries and global health agencies on high alert. This virus has been the reason behind some anxiety being experienced in China, and the rest of the world right now.

Wuhan Coronavirus

Now, going deeper into the world of Wuhan Coronavirus. Colloquially named after the first city where it is believed to have originated. The virus has seemed to be changing rapidly. However, the fact is that its exact source of this virus is yet to be identified, and it is still poorly understood.

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a family of viruses that often cause mild respiratory symptoms like the common cold. That sounds a bit manageable. Yes! But then, some can cause serious illness. Reports have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which jumped from bats to humans in China’s Guangdong Province in 2002, infected more than 8,000 people worldwide and killed at least 774.

Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.

How Bad is Wuhan Coronavirus?

Several reports from the National Health Commission of China and districts’ Health Commission in the last few days have shown series of pneumonia reported cases, with 2005 confirmed cases, suspected cases around 2684, 56 have died, and 49 cured cases.  pneumonia reported cases of 2005

The Economic Effect of Wuhan Coronavirus

As a result of the continuous widespread of this virus, transportations all around the country are shut down partially or completely. This has caused the inability of all workers and employees to go back to factories and companies to work, which has affected operations in most companies.

Well, the implementation of the control of personnel in and out of Wuhan is because the epidemic situation has reached an urgent level, and only by strictly controlling the source of infection can the pandemic be prevented.

Talking about strict controlling, provinces such as Zhejiang, Hubei has announced the highest level of emergency by shutting down most of the public spaces and activities. Schools and institutions are also not left out, as they have announced to postpone school dates.

On Jan. 25th, President Xi announced battle with the new Wuhan Coronavirus, the top thing of the country, and the next day it is reported that the State Council encouraged to extend the Chinese Lunar New Year Holiday which is the best period to prevent the spread of Wuhan Coronavirus.

The Impact of Wuhan Coronavirus on Dropshipping

From all indications, we have seen. It’s a fact that a lot of things have been and will still be affected by this Virus. Unfortunately, one of them (what will be affected) is dropshipping! You might have been thinking of how this coronavirus influence dropshipping.

Stock Fall

Yes!  Apparently, American financial markets are not immune to a new respiratory virus that has spread quickly from China. Stocks have been said to fall on fears that the Coronavirus could take a more significant economic toll than initially expected. The virus has sickened thousands of people and killed more than a hundred.

Absent Workers

In addition to closing many of its borders with China, the city’s government announced that government workers would be encouraged to work from home when the Lunar New Year holiday ends.

The directive, which excluded emergency service workers and people who work for essential public services, urged the private sector to enforce similar arrangements. This means almost all the workers involved in the dropshipping process in China won’t have the chance to go work.

Factories Can’t Produce

The fact is, most suppliers of dropshipping business are from China. As a result of this virus and the compulsory -stay indoor- thing, factories will not be able to produce products at the expected date. Because of this new Wuhan Coronavirus, the majority of workers will not be able to come back to suppliers’ factories to start producing.

The previous holiday plan allows workers to stay at home until February. However, according to the current situation, the return date of workers may be delayed, which means dropshipping will suffer.

Logistics Problems

Say a supplier or suppliers have product stocks available, what about logistics? Logistics companies are also affected by this virus, as most of their workers are at home. With the Government announcement of borders closing and all cities’ transportation systems closed, there’s no way logistics companies could work.

If logistics companies don’t work, then there’s no way parcels and other dropshipping fulfillment products will be shipped out to their various destination.

Most of the suppliers’ facility has been temporarily shut down by the government. Probably you’ve placed orders that ship from China, you should consider bringing down those Ads temporarily, and notification across to your buyers regarding the situation at hand would be a good idea.

There you have it! The rapid changing of Coronavirus has made some things difficult. With all workers at home, transportation systems paralyzed in the provinces, this has invariably affected and will still affect dropshipping business. We can only hope China will overcome this Coronavirus quickly so that everything can recover to normal.

Contact us today at Fulfillman to know more about our services. We specialize in providing excellent Drop Shipping services, Warehouse fulfillment, China sourcing, Third Party Logistics, and many more. Our dedicated experts will be available to speak with you and discuss the options available to you. We guarantee you get quality and excellent services that give complete client satisfaction.

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How Many Websites Are There In The World?

The Internet is BIG! Very big. However it is dominated by just a few hundred organisations and their websites. So how big is the Internet? How many websites are there? According to the Netcraft January 2018 Web Server Surveythere are 1,805,260,010 (over 1.8 billion) websites. Yes, the Internet is very big. However, most of those websites get almost no visitors.

The human brain is often compared to a computer, full of bits of information, able to make swift, steady connections. Just like a computer, the brain has many programs like the ones that allow us to move, think and make decisions. To operate, a computer uses software, a set of instructions to tell it what to do.

(This post first appeared in January 2014 and was updated in January 2015, September 2017 and February 2018.)

 

Image result for hippocampus

brainmadesimple.com
The hippocampus is a small organ located within the brain’s medial temporal lobe and forms an important part of the limbic system, the region that regulates emotions. The hippocampus is associated mainly with memory, in particular long-term memory. The organ also plays an important role in spatial navigation.

How Many Websites Are Active?

The size of the Internet can be measured in various ways, including totals such as: How many websites are there? How many domains are registered? How many websites are being used? What are the most popular web sites? How much storage is required to hold all the web data? How much data is transmitted? Etc., etc. The trouble is the Internet is so big that these totals and numbers change all the time. For this brief look at the size of the Internet the total number of websites is examined. In other words you can type a unique domain name into your browser’s address bar and you will get a response.

The January 2018 Netcraft Survey shows a modest rise compared to last years number:

A Yearly Table of the Number of ‘Websites’ in the World

Month and Year Number of Websites
January 2018 1,805,260,010
January 2017 1,800,047,111
January 2016 906,616,188
January 2015 876,812,666
January 2014 861,379,152

When this article was first written in 2014 it used the Netcraft January 2014 Web Server Survey. Then there were 861,379,152 websites. During 2014 the total number of websites exceeded 1 billion for the first time (in September). The number of web sites peaked at 1,028,932,208 in October 2014 before falling back below 900 million. Had the world enough web sites at that time? Especially as mobile phone apps have become so popular as a way of accessing Internet services.

Despite the number of websites staying below a billion for a while, the peak had not been reached. It was not until March 2016 that the billion website mark was broken again, at 1,003,887,790 sites. This time not falling back. Indeed 2016 saw big growths in websites with Microsoft being the big winner. Their web server platforms and Azure cloud offering seemed to be hitting all the right notes. However, as with all things in computing nothing lasts for ever, and the NGINX web server is now on the rise.

  • of 10. Google.com. Google is the world’s most popular search engine. …
  • of 10. Youtube.com. You’ve probably watched a video on YouTube this week, as did plenty of other people. …
  • of 10. Facebook.com. …
  • of 10. Baidu.com. …
  • of 10. Wikipedia.org. …
  • of 10. QQ.com. …
  • of 10. Taobao. …
  • of 10. Yahoo.com.

What is the Total Number of Domains in the World?

Those of you that don’t understand the workings of the Internet may not realise that the 1.8 billion plus website number is just over three times larger than the number of registered domains. Why?

According to the Verisign Domain Name Industry Brief the total number of registered domain names in Q4 2017 was 332.4 million. So 330+ million domains support over 1.8 billion websites. But not all registered domains get used. Some are just registered so that no one else can register them. Some are registered and never used.

When this post was first written in January 2014 the ZMap project, a high speed open source network scanner, had scanned the entire Internet and estimated the total number of hosts at 108 million. Then it was likely that the then 861 million websites were active on 108 million hosts. This is because a domain can be divided into sub-domains. For example a blogging website, such as Blogger, WordPress or  dotifi.com  this website ! , will let a user create a website that hangs of the main domain name, e.g. http://yourwebsite.dotifi.com.     for free !

The January 2019 dotifi Survey reports 17.2 million (17,228,005) web facing computers. So 7.2 million computers serve up 1.8 billion web sites. Most of these sites are static and hardly change. Dotifi estimates that there are  1-2 million active sites (those that get regular changes).This is minus the Dark Web where Millions of robot websites exist  The number of active sites has risen  from  2015. Despite the huge growth in websites only around 10% contribute fresh information to the Internet. That is a lot of underutilized resources and a lot of wasted money.

A Few Hundred Sites Dominate the Internet

Despite there being over 1.8 billion websites only a few hundred dominate the Internet. Less than 1 million, or 0.1%, account for over 50% of web traffic. To get an idea on how much such a small percentage of the total websites dominate look at The Internet Map.

The Internet map

Or Icons of the Web.

Icons of the Web

The website Alexa owned by amazon lists the world’s top websites.

Summary for How Many Websites Are There

As of January 2018:

  • There are 332 million registered domains…
  • for over 1.8 billion websites…
  • served up by 7.2 million computers.

With 1.8 billion websites, if you publish a website it is very unlikely it will get noticed… Unless you are prepared to produce quality content, perform Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and spend on marketing. Or you may get lucky, and be the next big thing, as all the top sites were once.

Dotifi.com  can start you off for free and maybe make you some money too.  The gigagiants won along time ago. But the world is big enough for niche websites. Find your passion and produce good content, keep producing content to fill the niche. Meet the needs of a target audience and promote it on social media. If you get to 50,000+ page views per month you are in the top 0.1% of world websites. 99.9% of websites get almost no traffic. Even the gigagiants started out with no traffic, but they found an idea that worked.

 

Your brain functions a lot like the Internet or a network of friends, scientists said Tuesday.

Researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the activity in peoples’ brains and how different regions connect. They conclude the human brain can be visualized as a complex interacting network that relies on nodes to efficiently convey information from place to place.

Very few jumps are necessary to connect any two nodes, the study found.

“This so-called ‘small world’ property allows for the most efficient connectivity,” said Dante Chialvo, a physiologist at Northwestern University.

Other networks — social and biochemical — rely on the same principle.

The scientists measured the degree of correlation between activities in tens of thousands of brain regions. They found that many of the nodes had only a few connections, and a small number of nodes were connected to many others. These “super-connected” nodes act as hubs — as with the Internet or your most gossipy friend — getting the word out quickly and widely.

So maybe, the thinking goes, if you can figure out how the Internet works — or why your gossipy friend succeeds — then you can grasp your own mind.

Or, put more scientifically, these findings of basic principles of brain function suggest “that the underlying properties can be understood using the theoretical framework already advanced in the study of other, disparate, networks,” Chialvo said. The research could help frame other studies of the brain’s role in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and chronic pain, Chialvo and his colleagues say.

The results were detailed in the Dec. 31 online version of the journal Physical Review Letters.

 

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5 Reasons Your Business Should Have a Blog

Does your business have a website? If so, it should have a blog as well. While the content on your main website will remain static, the content you share on a blog will take on a life of its own. Incorporating a blog into your business’s marketing strategy will enable you to reach out and make contacts you may not have been able to create before. Not sure blogging is for you? Here are some of the benefits of building a blog for your business.

5. Building Better Relationships

Adding a blog to your business website will help you to build better relationships with both your current and potential clients. By reading the comments, you’ll get to see what your clients really like (or don’t like) about the products and services you offer. You’ll also gain a better understanding of what your potential clients are really looking for.

4. Establishing Authority in Your Area of Expertise

By providing informative content, as opposed to advertisements alone, you’ll show your audiences that you are a trusted authority in your area of expertise. Blogging gives business owners the opportunity to share their knowledge, not only telling their readers what they can do, but by shedding some light on the processes as well. The more educated your clients feel, the more likely they are to trust you when it comes time to make a purchase.

3. Blogs are Inexpensive Marketing Tools

Building a blog is incredibly inexpensive. Your blog can be on a separate website or may exist as a subsection of your business site. Blogging platforms, like WordPress, can be installed for free. You may choose to use a free or premium theme or you may opt to have a designer create a theme unique to your website. After your blog is built, you’ll spend very little on hosting and upkeep. You’ll only need to worry about the time spent creating content.

2. Search Engine Optimization

Search engine optimization, aka SEO, is essential to the success of your business website. A blog will enhance your SEO campaign by giving you a place from which to create links back to your main website. You’ll also be able to incorporate your site’s main keywords into your blog content in order to drive more traffic to your sites. The authoritative content on your site will not only impress your customers but will gain the attention of other website owners as well. They’ll link to your site, thus increasing your search engine rankings.

1. Better Branding

At the end of the day, your business’s brand is what will make a difference to your sales. Your blog will prove a valuable tool for building trust, establishing your reputation, and creating a sense of familiarity. Your happy customers will always remember your name and will refer you to friends via word-of-mouth advertising. A personal referral is the best type of free advertising you can earn.

The task of building a blog will prove relatively painless. Once it’s created, you’ll begin to experience increased web traffic and you’ll be amazed at the feedback you get from your visitors – especially as they evolve from prospects into new and repeat clients!

Welcome to Dotifi
This email or post confirms you have signed up for an account with Dotifi. Thank you! Dotifi provides free website business on dotifi.com and pleasure swordpress.com.ng digital content — e-books, software, memberships and subscriptions — and reselling of already bought premium domains and websites to consumers around the world through a network of product publishers and affiliate Internet marketers. Dotifi publishers have a digital product or service to sell. Dotifi affiliates are Internet marketers who earn commissions by promoting Dotifi products. A Dotifi account is designed to be used by both publishers and affiliates.

To illustrate, here is an example of how Dotifi works:

You research our premium domains and websites link and see a domain name or website you know you can resell for us you sell it you makea commision commisions start from ten percent and can go up to 70percent !

http://dotifi.com/blog/2018/10/17/all-domains/# this list gets updated daily and each product is in the store http://dotifi.com/
lets assume the domain name saraki.com.ng you know someone who knows saraki family and are able to convince them to buy this important nigerian domain name for their family for 5million naira guess what you make 2.5m ! for its a 50percent commision domain name you can even earn more if your price is higher than the listed 5m naira !
An author writes an e-book on dieting and chooses to become a publisher on the Dotifi network. He features the book on his web site and offers a 60 percent commission to Dotifi affiliates who successfully promote the book (resulting in a sale) to end consumers.
An affiliate sees the publisher’s e-book in the Dotifi Marketplace and decides to feature the dieting e-book on his web site or in other online promotions.
Each time a visitor to the affiliate’s web site or advertisement clicks on the product link, the visitor is referred to the publisher’s site where the product can be purchased though Dotifi and downloaded. Dotifi handles the tracking and transaction (screens for fraud and processes the payment, etc.), and if the transaction is successful, pays both the publisher and the referring affiliate.
Dotifi also processes any sales from the publisher’s web site that are not referred through a Dotifi affiliate. In those cases, Dotifi pays the publisher only, as no referring commission has been earned.

Dotifi is also into advertising just like google adsense go to adngine.com to register free and start making money on your website or a website you got from us for free !
For more information about getting started with Dotifi as either a publisher, affiliate, or both, check out the references provided in this email, as well as the “Sell Products” (publishers) tab and the “Promote Products” (affiliates) tab available on our site. In addition we have collected some publisher resources and affiliate resources that you might find helpful in understanding how to maximize your opportunities.
or email dotifi@tweeterest.com

Top Beginner Questions
To better assist our new publishers and affiliates we’ve compiled answers to our 5 most commonly asked questions for both publishers and affiliates.

Click on the headings below to download the respective PDFs and read the answers.

Top Beginner Affiliate Questions

I opened an affiliate account, now what? What are dotlinks and where do I put them?

As an affiliate, do I need to make a Thank You Page? Also, what is my dotlink Target URL?

Where are my dotlinks I created? Do you have a list of them?

As an affiliate, do I need to submit my dotlinks for product approval?

What is the difference between the two dotlinks automatically generated when you use the link “create dotlink” in the Marketplace?

Top Beginner Publisher Questions
I opened a publisher account, now what? What is a Pitch Page? A Thank You Page?

How do I get my product approved? I submitted my approval weeks ago, but have gotten no response?

As a publisher, how do I attract affiliates?

How do I protect my Thank You Page so that people won’t be able to just go to the page and download my product without first purchasing it?

As a publisher, how do I pass parameters from my Pitch Page?

Sign Up for the Dotifi Newsletter
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Getting Paid
The Dotifi pay period ends at 12:00:01 a.m. PST on the 1st and 16th of each month. Payments are sent during the pay period .Paypal and Local Bank Accounts
email dotifi@tweeterest.com for more info

Getting Started Checklists you must register first http://dotifi.com/affiliate-area/
Dotifi Affiliates
Choose which products you want to promote
Create working dotlinks
Place your dotlinks to promote your chosen products

Dotifi Publishers
Make a “Pitch Page” to promote and sell your product
Designate a “dotlink Target URL” in your Account Settings
Make a “Thank You Page” to deliver your product
Test your payment links
Request product approval
Pay the activation charge
Connect to the Dotifi affiliate network to optimize your sales

Getting Help
Have a question? Need assistance with your account? Submit a customer service request via email

please provide us with as much information as possible. Providing us with details allows us to provide you with a faster and more complete response.

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There’s a lot to unpack here.Posted on December 11, 2018, at 6:37 p.m.

Ben Henry

Ben HenryBuzzFeed Staff

Every year, Pornhub put together their end of year review, which presents all the data and facts you didn’t know you needed to see. Last year’s was pretty epic (you can read that here), but how does this year compare…

1. Let’s start big — in 2018, there were 33.5 billion visits to Pornhub, which is 5 billion more than last year.

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2. The daily average for the year was 92m visitors a day, but according to Pornhub, they’ve now crossed 100m daily.

3. There were 30.3 billion searches altogether, and the year’s not even over with yet. That’s 962 searches a second.

4. You could probably guess that the US was gonna top the list of countries with the highest traffic, and it wasn’t even close. Rounding out the top five is the UK, India, Japan, and Canada.

5. But the US comes in third for the longest time spent on the site per visit. While they spend an average of 10m 37s every time they log on, the Philippines (13m 50s) and South Africa (10m 57s) beat them to the top.

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6. On average, every minute of the day 207,405 videos are watched.

7. But you don’t have to worry about Pornhub running out of new content anytime soon — almost 5 million videos were uploaded to the site in 2018, totalling a million hours altogether.

8. There were almost 8m comments on videos this year. The most common words? Love, hot, like, good, and sexy.

9. There were more than 141m video votes (you know, where you give something a thumbs up or down).

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10. For the data nerds, there was 4403 PETABYTES of data transferred altogether this year. To put that into perspective, that’s more bandwidth than the ENTIRE INTERNET consumed in 2002.

11. Some of the searches that defined 2018? Fortnite, Stormy Daniels, and…uh…Bowsette. If you don’t know what that is, I’m not going to be the one to tell you.

12. And the most searched for terms of the year? Lesbian, which is still sitting pretty at the top of the heap, followed by hentai, milf, and stepmom, which also haven’t moved since 2017.

13. The Philippines had the most even proportion of male and female visitors (62% male and 38% female), followed by Brazil and South Africa, which both hit 65% male and 35% female visitors.

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14. This year, the majority of people watched porn on their phone — a whopping 71.6%. That’s in comparison to desktop (19.7%) and tablet (8.7%).

15. Obviously when special events happen in the world, traffic to Pornhub dips. The biggest came from the royal wedding back in May, which saw a 10% drop in traffic worldwide.

16. And finally, if you just want to look specifically at the US, the biggest drop in traffic came on New Year’s Eve (down 38%).

17. But the biggest increase? Valentine’s Day of course, which was up 7%.

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a day ago

Diagnosed with the disease as a toddler, Revée Agyepong was always down with chronic bone and joint pain, irregular heartbeat, kidney stones and shortness of breath. Today, 26-year old Revée is among the first adults in Canada to be cured of sickle cell anemia with the help of a stem cell transplant.

Two years ago, the Alberta Children’s Hospital in Canada announced that they have been successful in treating sickle cell disease in young patients using stem cell transplants. On hearing the news, Revée, whose health was declining, decided to leverage on the opportunity but doctors told her she was too old to undergo the procedure.

According to Alberta Health Services, the older the patient and donor in bone marrow transplants, the greater the risk of graft versus host disease, which is a type of immune rejection that can have serious health repercussions and can even result in death.

But Revée’s older sister, Stephanie started to research other centers testing the treatment on adult patients, before approaching Revée’s doctors to share with them the stem cell transplant procedure.

Coincidentally, Revée’s 

Coincidentally, Revée’s doctor had been thinking about conducting adult stem cell transplants for sickle cell disease. They tested Stephanie and found out that she was a perfect match for her sister. Stephanie’s stem cells were then collected and given to Revée.

Today, Revée’s blood tests does not show any signs of sickle cell disease, which means she is totally cured.

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The physics of where to put a WI-FI ROUTER: Scientist proves that the centre of your home is best for signal strength Jason Cole at Imperial College London simulated Wi-Fi router locations Through complex equations he proved the centre of a home was the best place for optimum connection He had been frustrated by blackspots in his flat when accessing the internet Walls, doors and corners were found to greatly decrease signal strength His simulation found there was no substitute for line-of-sight to the router While he has not tried the simulation in the real world yet, he tells MailOnline some people have suggested ‘taping an antenna to a robot vacuum cleaner’

Deciding where to place a Wi-Fi router at home to minimise signal blackspots is a fine art.

But a physicist has attempted to tackle the problem by mathematically working out the optimum position for a router.

He studied how walls and reflections affected signal strength and concluded that, as common sense might suggest, there’s just no beating the centre of a house for router location.

Jason Cole at Imperial College London simulated Wi-Fi router locations (shown above in the diagram of Mr Cole’s flat). He found that the best location, as common sense might suggest, was in the centre of a home. He had grown frustrated after finding blackspots in his flat

The ‘complex’ research was carried out by Jason Cole, a PhD physics student at the John Adams Institute at Imperial College London.

ARE WI-FI SIGNALS DANGEROUS? Wi-Fi signals use very low intensity radio waves. Whilst similar in wavelength to domestic microwave radiation, the intensity of Wi-Fi radiation is 100,000 times less than that of a domestic microwave oven.

The type of radiation emitted by radio waves (Wi-Fi), visible light, microwaves and mobile phones has been shown to raise the temperature of tissue at very high levels of exposure – but that’s much higher than what people are subjected to on a regular basis.

This is called a thermal interaction, but researchers are divided as to whether the radiation we receive daily can cause damage.

The UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) has been monitoring the safety of Wi-Fi. It says people using Wi-Fi, or those in the proximity, are exposed to the radio signals it emits – and some of the transmitted energy in the signals is absorbed in their bodies.

However, the signals are very low power. Sitting in a Wi-Fi hotspot for a year results in receiving the same dose of radio waves as making a 20 minute mobile phone call.

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Benin has numerous markets strewn across the city to cater for the needs of its inhabitants as well as to serve as sales outlets for the numerous farm produce cultivated in the rural areas of the state. The nodal nature of Benin makes it an ideal place for various commercial activities as these farm produce can be easily transported to cities like Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt

A visit to the major markets in Benin shows that there is still a lot that can be done by both the government and traders to make shopping in Benin a better experience.This article is on the top 10 popular markets in Benin CityA market in Benin CityGods Market (Ekiosa) This market is located along Sakponba road, stretching across second and third east circular (Murtala Muhammed Way) roads at the very heart of Benin City. The name of the market (Eki meaning market and Osa meaning God) is related to the origins of the market.

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It is reportedly traced back to the days of the arrival of the early Jehovah Witness missionaries in Benin City, when the once bushy area was used as a venue for crusades. The local traders intended to take advantage of the large crowds that gathered during these religious events to sell their wares.Ekiosa is known as a bustling market where foodstuffs such as rice and beans brought from outside Edo State, as well as locally grown food items like yams, melons, vegetables, etc. are sold at quite affordable rates.

However, it is somewhat ironical considering its name and origin that the market is also a major hub for the sale of traditional worship and ritual materials (locally called kemwinkemwin).Shopping at ekiosa is quite convenient with parking spaces available for a small fee along the second east circular road.

Oba Market (Ekioba) The Oba market is located at ring road Benin City, right in the city centre. This market is probable the oldest of the large markets in Benin as it is recorded that business activities were taking place at the same location as far back as the 15th century as they are today.Oba market is known for the sale of food items, clothes and fabrics, traditional beads, jewellery, and it also has a major mobile phone shopping plaza as well as computer sales and repair services.

A prominent feature of Oba market is the Emotan statue and shrine located right opposite the market.Agbado Market (Ekiagbado) Agbado market is located along the Akpakpava and mission road axis of the city.

Agbado market which was created by Ogiso Ere and was named Ogiso market (16 and 66 AD) is the first market in Benin kingdom but was later renamed Agbado market. Although food items, clothes and other items can be purchased there, it is mostly known as a market where all forms of cooking utensils such as pots, pans, spoons, plates and kitchen paraphernalia are sold in large quantities at affordable prices. Agbado market also has a large plastics sale section.Shopping at ekiagbado is quite convenient because of its layout and accessible car park.

New Benin Market The New Benin market is located in the New Benin, Mission road and New Lagos road area. It is probably the busiest market in Benin City. A wide range of commodities are sold there at really good prices such as food items, electronics and electricals, clothes and fabrics, traditional beads as well as a large bush meat section.Probably due to its super busy nature, New Benin market is very crowded and quite disorganised.

Not only is there a persistent traffic grid lock around the market, it is also quite filthy due to inefficient waste disposal system. It is a common sight to see decaying food and animal remains around the market, resulting in the constant stench that seems to hang around the market.New Benin market is also associated with poor parking and unregulated street trading.

Santana Market Santana market is located along Sapele road in Benin City. Items traded at Santana market include food items, beverages, and fish mostly brought in from neighbouring Delta state.

It is a major cause of traffic jam along sapele road because of shoppers who have to park along the road because of the unavailability of a suitable carpark.Uselu Market (Edaiken Market) Uselu market is one of the most prominent markets in Benin City, located on the Ugbowo Lagos road in Egor Local Government Area.

Uselu market stocks practically anything from food items, clothes, fabrics, vegetables, meat, plastics, cooking utensils, cosmetics, drinks and beverages. It is highly patronised by people living around the Ugbowo area and also students of the University of Benin because of the proximity of the market to the Ugbowo campus.Shopping at Uselu market is quite convenient but parking could be a bit of a challenge.

Oliha Market The Oliha market is located in the Siluko road area of Benin City. It serves as a major trade outlet for the farm produce cultivated in the interior villages. Apart from the farm produce, Oliha market also has sections for clothes, food items, drinks, locally made beads and fabrics.Along with Ekiosa market, Oliha market is well known for the sale of objects of Benin traditional worship and rituals such as native chalk, red, white and black fabrics, alligator pepper, tortoise, ostrich feathers, animal skulls and bones, etc.

Oregbeni Market (Ikpoba Hill Market) Oregbeni market also known as Ikpoba Hill market is located in Ikpoba Hill in Ikpoba – Okha local government area of Edo state. Oregbeni market is not a daily market, it holds traditionally every four days. The market days usually draws customers from far and wide because of its huge stock of freshly harvested crops, fruits and vegetables and also its strategic location.Due to street trading and the large number of customers, the market days are often characterised by heavy traffic in the Ikpoba Hill area.

Ugbogiobo Market Ugbogiobo market is located in Ovia North East local government area of Edo State. The market opens traditionally every four days. It is well known for the sale of fresh food crops and fruits brought in from the hinterland. It is also a major palm oil and cassava flakes (garri) hub in Benin City.

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Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, OwoAcademic activities were yesterday suspended following the gruesome murder of a lecturer of the Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Mr. Taiwo Akinyemi, by kidnappers.

Akinyemi was abducted on Tuesday along with three others near Amurin Village along Owo-Akure Road.

The killing may be due to the inability of the kidnappers to pick the N500,000 ransom where it was placed as three other victims kidnapped with Akinyemi had regained their freedom.

The ransom was still intact after Akinyemi’s body was found by a farmer, suggesting that his abductors might have killed him because they could not find the money where it was dropped by the institution who negotiated his release.

It was gathered that the kidnappers tied the 52-year-old lecturer to a tree and used his clothes to tie him before shooting him. The kidnappers also macheted him gruesomely.

Akinyemi’s murder led to the suspension of the second semester examination scheduled to begin yesterday while students and staff of the institution moved round the school in procession as a mark of respect for the deceased.

Governor Rotimi Akeredolu also suspended all official assignments and rushed to the school to commiserate with the academic community, describing the lecturer’s death as unfortunate.

The body of the 52-year-old lecturer was found in a bush tied to a stick on Sunday evening after being in the den of the kidnappers for six days.

Addressing journalists, chairman of the Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Polytechnic (SSANIP), RUGIPO chapter, Chris Olowolade, described the death of the father of three as sad. He explained that the union had entered into negotiation with the kidnappers in order to secure his release.

“We lost him to the kidnappers and received his body yesterday. The kidnappers placed a ransom of N100 million on him, which nobody can afford but they reduced it to N7 million after two days and later grudgingly asked us to come with N500,000.

The money was taken to them and the person who took the money was directed by the kidnappers to where he should drop the money. They asked him to stop, reverse and move just to confirm if he was the actual person bringing the money.

“But after some hours, they called that the man bringing the money should come back that they didn’t see the money, only for the Rector to be called yesterday to come and identify a body. We rushed to the morgue and discovered it was his body.

“The body was recovered by the police and deposited at the morgue, it show he was badly maltreated before he was killed. We, however, recovered the N500,000 ransom taken to them. We suspect that maybe Akinyemi died in their hands before the ransom was taken to them,” he said adding that the deceased was shot at the back by the kidnappers while he was also heavily macheted before he was killed.

Addressing the institution’s community, Akeredolu explained that the state government and the security operatives tried to rescue the deceased.

He gave the assurance that the government would be committed to the security of lives and property, saying he has directed the security operatives in the state to increase road patrol to curb the activities of kidnappers on the roads.

The state Police Public Relations Officer, Femi Joseph, policemen are on the trail of the kidnappers but no arrest has been made. He enjoined the people to be more security conscious and report strange faces or movement to the police.

Meanwhile, the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA) in the state has called on the state government to convene a security summit to address the incessant kidnap and killings in the state.

The state’s NMA chairman, Dr. Olawale Oke, made the call yesterday in Akure at a press conference.

The association expressed its dissatisfaction with the security situation in the state following the kidnap of a pregnant doctor and two nurses by gunmen on the Akure-Owo Road on Thursday.

“It is on this note that we are crying to the whole world that those that are carrying out their legitimate duties are no longer safe in Ondo State.

“We, therefore, call on the Chief Security Officer of this state, Rotimi Akeredolu, to do the needful by paying more attention to the security of lives and property of the people in the state so that law-abiding citizens can be more productive. There is an urgent need to call a real state security summit, which will address the present situation and proffer general panacea to insecurity,” he stated.

In another development, the police command in Nasarawa State has confirmed the abduction of David Ayele, the All Progressives Congress (APC) candidate for Obi II constituency in the 2019 election.

Kennedy Idirisu, a superintendent of police and the command`s spokesman, told journalists yesterday in Lafia, the state capital that the politician was abducted by gunmen from his Lafia residence around Tudun Kauri at about 8:00p.m. on Sunday.

Idirisu said the police responded immediately the report was made by trailing the suspects and later found the victim`s car along Obi-Awe road.

He said the police was working to ensure that the victim was rescued and also stem the tide of kidnapping in the state.

“We have deployed our men to comb the area where the victim`s car was found and we are also gathering intelligence that would lead to the rescue of the victim,” he said.

The spokesperson appealed to the public to always report suspicious movements in their areas to security agencies for prompt action.

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